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山苦瓜部分成分功效報導摘錄

山苦瓜 (Momordica charantia L.var. abbreviata Seringe)
別名野苦瓜、短果苦瓜、小苦瓜,屬葫蘆科 (Cucurbitaceae)。
原產於熱帶亞洲,本省東部及中南部平原至低海拔山區自生,為一年生或多年生草質藤本植物,果實小,野生地之果實一般在30公克以內,果型橄欖型至短橢圓型,果色由草綠至深綠色,為苦瓜之原種。自古中國即印度便用苦瓜素成為藥用,全株有清熱解毒之效,果實有清暑解熱、明目、解毒之效。現在科學已經清楚地驗證苦瓜的蛋白質及化學分子萃取物具有降血糖、血脂作用,其作用機轉包括活化胰臟的Beta Cell,改善GlucoseTolerance,修飾組織Glucose和lipid的代謝 (1,2,3,4,5)。苦瓜除了含有血糖、血脂的調控物質外,其蛋白質成份中也含有抑制愛滋病毒感染與複製的能力(2,6)。葫蘆科所含苦味成份對癌細胞大多有抑制作用,苦瓜成份也在腸道癌細胞模式證實有抑制癌症能力(7,8)。
參考資料:
1 . Yibchok-Anun S, Adisakwattana S, Yao CY, Sangvanich P,Roengsumran S, Hsu WH. Slow Acting Protein Extract fromFruit Pulp of Momordica charantia with Insulin Secretagogue andInsulinomimetic Activities. Biol Pharm Bull. (2006) 29(6):1126-31.
2 . Nerurkar PV, Lee YK, Linden EH, Lim S, Pearson L, Frank J,Nerurkar VR. Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia
(Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatomacells, HepG2. Br J Pharmacol. (2006) Jul 3; [Epub ahead of print]
3 . Harinantenaina L, Tanaka M, Takaoka S, Oda M, Mogami O, UchidaM, Asakawa Y. Momordica charantia constituents andantidiabeticscreening of the isolated major compounds. Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo). (2006) 54(7):1017-21.
4 . Vikrant V, Grover JK, Tandon N, Rathi SS, Gupta N. Treatmentwith extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana
prevents hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in fructose fed rats. JEthnopharmacol. (2001) 76(2):139-43.
5 . Nerurkar PV, Pearson L, Efird JT, Adeli K, Theriault AG, NerurkarVR. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression andApoB secretion are inhibited by bitter melon in HepG2 cells. J Nutr.(2005) 135(4):702-6.
6 . Lee-Huang S, Huang PL, Nara PL, Chen HC, Kung HF, Huang P,Huang HI, Huang PL. MAP 30: a new inhibitor of HIV-1 infectionand replication. FEBS Lett. (1990) 272(1-2):12-8.
7 . Yasui Y, Hosokawa M, Sahara T, Suzuki R, Ohgiya S, KohnoH, Tanaka T, Miyashita K. Bitter gourd seed fatty acid rich in
9c,11t,13t-conjugated linolenic acid induces apoptosis and up-regulates the GADD45, p53 and PPARgamma in human colon cancerCaco-2 cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2005)
73(2):113-9.
8 . Konishi T, Satsu H, Hatsugai Y, Aizawa K, Inakuma T, NagataS, Sakuda SH, Nagasawa H, Shimizu M. Inhibitory effect
of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity inintestinal Caco-2 cells. Br J Pharmacol. (2004) 143(3):379-87.
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